pressurized heavy water reactor upsc

• Uses Heavy Water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and Neutron Moderator. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam, Nanda Ashirwad Complex, 3rd Floor, The 700 MWe Indian PHWR has steel-lined containment to reduce the leakages and containment spray system to reduce the containment pressure in case of a loss of coolant accident and for scrubbing radio nuclides in case of their release beyond the design limit. Natural uranium contains only 0.7% of Uranium235, which undergoes fission to release energy (200Mev/atom). It uses heavy water (D 2 O) both as a primary coolant and as a neutron moderator. Pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) 880 MW India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 Mega Watts nuclear capacity on line by 2020 and 63,000 Mega Watts by 2032. Pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, Q.) Above Village Hyper Market, Chandralyout Main Road, An Introduction to Principal Component Analysis. Mastering the entire fuel cycle including prospecting of minerals, mining, processing and manufacturing of fuel and structural materials, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and immobilization of radioactive waste has. Topics Covered: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. To achieve this, large nuclear reactors such a Kudankulam 1, having 1000 MW are being established. They all have achieved very impressive rapid growth by adopting a convoy or a serial mode of installation of nuclear power plants of a few standardised designs. A PHWR is a nuclear power reactor, commonly using unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator. While heavy water is significantly more expensive than ordinary light water, it yields greatly enhanced neutron economy, allowing the reactor to operate without fuel enrichment facilities. HELIOS lattice models were developed and benchmarked against WIMS/MCNP5 results generated by NA-SA. Pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5%Nb contain the 0.5 m long cluster-type fuel … Heavy Water Reactors HWR is also a type of Thermal Neutron Reactor. This uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator. KAPS-1&2 consists of two Units of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor of 220 MWe each. In this context, the successful development of separation of minor actinides from the nuclear waste in India, deployed in pilot plant scale, has drawn world-wide attention. Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). Light Water Reactors. Plutonium recovered by reprocessing of spent fuel from operating PHWRs has been used in making the plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel for the full core of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) which has initiated the commissioning activities before commencing operation. This is a part of our recently launched, NEW INITIATIVE IASbaba’s INTEGRATED REVISION PLAN (IRP) 2020 – Road Map for the next 100 Days! The reduced energy content of natural uranium as compared to enriched uranium necessitates more frequent replacement of fuel; this is normally accomplished by use of an on-power refuelling system. Which has been adopted right from the beginning of the Indian programme is not only in multiplying the fuel resource but also in reducing the radio-active burden of the nuclear waste dramatically. Moreover, using Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors rather than Light Water Reactors was also a correct and wise decision. While Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors used unenriched uranium, Light Water Reactors required enriched uranium. 2.3.1 India: PHWR-220 design. The consequence of an accidental rupture of the pressure boundary in such a design will have a much less severity than that in a pressure vessel type reactor. Kakrapar) Graphite Moderator Reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses carbon as a neutron moderator. PHWR will help India to achieve its Paris climate change conference commitments. As the remaining 99% U-238 is not fissionable, it undergoes transmutation and forms Plutonium-239(Pu-239). About: Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PWHR) A pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear power reactor, that uses unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, and uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator. India is now poised for a rapid growth in the nuclear power capacity which is essential for meeting the demand of clean electricity. Prelims: General Science. Today, Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. While heavy water is significantly more expensive than ordinary light water, it creates greatly enhanced neutron economy, allowing the reactor to operate without fuel-enrichment facilities (offsetting the additional expense of the heavy water) and enhancing the ability of the reactor to make use of alternate fuel cycles. Call or WhatsApp us for plus subscription - 8727053008 / Use code - RANK10 for Discount & Mentorship. Fuel can be Uranium - 235 enriched which uses heavy water as a moderator e.g. Later Event: December 16. • The HWR follows the working principle of the Pressurized Water Reactor. The light water reactors are of two types viz. Stage I Pressurized Heavy Water reactor (PHWR) The first stage of India's nuclear power programme was based on uranium fuelled pressurized heavy water reactors for producing electricity. The new reactors are of significantly higher capacities compared to the PHWRs currently under operation. analyse. 100% of all their components are manufactured by the Indian industry. While heavy water is significantly more expensive than ordinary light water, it yields greatly enhanced neutron economy, allowing the reactor to operate without fuel enrichment facilities (mitigating the additional capital cost of the heavy water) and generally enhancing the ability of the reactor to efficiently make use of alternate fuel cycles. So this topic is important. The first stage comprises of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors fuelled by natural uranium. This is a landmark event in India’s domestic civilian nuclear programme given that KAPP-3 is the country’s first 700 MWe (megawatt electric) unit, and the biggest indigenously developed variant of the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The remaining 99.3% comprises Uranium238 which is not fissile however it is converted in the nuclear reactor, to fissile element Pu 239. In a BWR, the reactor core heats water which turns to steam and then drives a steam turbine. D.T. An enhanced scope and an accelerated implementation of the First Stage of the programme will make a far- reaching impact on securing the energy self-reliance of the country. Union Cabinet gave its approval for the construction of 10 units of the new indigenous 700 MWe (mega watt electric) pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The main reasons for selecting PHWRs in the 1960s. (A) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors For the Indian nuclear power programme, which took off in the sixties, PHWR was the reactors of choice for the first stage of the programme. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling, much as in a typical pressurized water reactor. With the entry of India in her Second Stage of nuclear power programme in which Fast Breeder Reactors will not only enable the growth of the installed nuclear capacity, but also generate more fissile materials, plutonium-239 and uranium-233 by conversion of fertile isotopes, uranium-238 and thorium-232 respectively. (Source: NPCL) ONE OF the two 220 MWe units at the Kakrapara Atomic Power Station (KAPS) in Gujarat had to be shut down at 9 am on Friday after leakage of heavy water from its coolant system. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling, much as in a pressurized water reactor. Latest top 50 UPSC March month 2017 | Current Affairs current affairs are published in question and answer format which are reviews from Hindu, you can also download PDF file. pressure water unit which turns into steam. The per-capita electricity consumption in India (now close to 1000 KWh) is nearly one-third of the world average and there is an obvious need for a. Methods and models were developed in several areas. To access the same, a google account is a must. Ingersoll, in Handbook of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors, 2015. Setting up Pu-239 fuelled fast Breeder Reactor of 500 MWe power generation is in advanced stage of completion. In a PWR, the primary coolant is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy released by the fission of atoms. o This steam drives the steam turbine. In second stage, plutonium and uranium oxide is used to give uranium -233 in fast breeder reactors where no moderator is needed. A/C Name: APEIROGON TECHNOLOGIES PVT. PHWR was considered the best choice for India as it was capable of utilising unenriched uranium whereas light water reactors required enriched uranium. Kudankulam) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as its coolant and neutron moderator (eg. What is criticality or when a rector is said to be critical? The use of heavy water as the moderator is the key to the PHWR (pressurized heavy water reactor) system, enabling the use of natural uranium as the fuel (in the form of ceramic UO2), which means, The mechanical arrangement of the PHWR, which places most of the moderator at lower temperatures, is particularly efficient because the resulting thermal neutrons are “more thermal” than in traditional designs, where the moderator normally is much hotter. Using unenriched natural uranium as its fuel. Cross-sections for the coupled RELAP5/PARCS calculation were extracted from HELIOS within the GenPMAXS framework. The ten reactors will be installed in Kaiga in Karnataka (Unit 5 and 6), Chutka in Madhya Pradesh (Unit 1 and 2), Gorakhpur in Haryana (Unit 3 and 4) and Mahi Banswara in Rajasthan (Unit 1, 2, 3 and 4). If thorium is used as a fuel then it is a Advanced heavy water reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The impressive growth in the solar and wind power has made a visible impact in increased availability of electricity in many areas. The following table gives the details of these nuclear power plants in … Technology transfer, control, and the indigenization of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactor . APEIROGON TECHNOLOGIES PVT. The use of heavy water as the moderator is the key to the PHWR (pressurized heavy water reactor) system, enabling the use of natural uranium as the fuel (in the form of ceramic UO2), which means that it can be operated without expensive uranium enrichment facilities. Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor in Kakrapar. LTD is the parent company of CIVILSDAILY IAS. A PHWR is a nuclear power reactor, commonly using unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator. Uses Heavy Water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and Neutron Moderator. Heavy Water Reactors • HWR is also a type of Thermal Neutron Reactor. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling, much as in a typical pressurized water reactor. India now has total capacity to build completely indigenous PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors). As of March 2016, about 61% of the country’s installed capacity was coal-fired, 14% came from hydropower, 14% came from other renewables (mostly wind, followed by small hydro and biomass), 8% from natural gas, 2% from nuclear, and 1% from diesel. Pressurized light-water reactors (PWR) 267 246555.1 89 93,014 356 339569.1 Boiling light-water reactors (BWR) 84 78320.6 6 8056 90 86376.6 Gas-cooled reactors, all models 17 8732.0 1 200 18 8932.0 Heavy-water reactors, all models 51 25610.0 8 5112 59 30722.0 Graphite-moderated reactors, all models 15 10219.0 0 0 15 10219.0 Currently, India has twenty-one nuclear power plants/ reactors with total capacity of 5,780 MW. A/C No: xxxxxxxxxx2695 This results in a distribution of pressure boundaries to large number of small diameter pressure tubes. By operating multiple recycles in the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle the supply of fissile material is expected to be enhanced by a factor of 60 and by using the huge reserve of thorium, the current estimate being four times that of uranium, India can sustain the supply of clean nuclear energy for several centuries. Mains: Science and technology – developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. since unenriched uranium fuel accumulates a lower density of fission products than enriched uranium fuel, it generates less heat, allowing more compact storage. This plant has Voda-Voda Energo Reactor. 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Manufacturing orders of close to Rs 70,000 crore are expected to come through to the domestic industry on account of the projects and are expected to generate more than 33,400 jobs in direct and indirect employment. In such a strategy, the industry can gear up their dedicated production lines for sophisticated nuclear components and construction companies can deploy their manpower and skill-set most effectively. Boiling Water Reactor Water is used as coolant, steam source and moderator. At present, the PWR are most popular kind of nuclear reactors.Key difference between a BWR and PWR is that. Further, India could domestically produce the components of PWHR, as opposed to LWRs. The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR-220) is a 235 MWe pressure-tube type reactor derived from the Canadian CANDU design. Over four decades of relentless research, design and development work in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Nuclear Power Corporation and the matching contributions of some of their industry partners who had shown the courage in taking up the challenging manufacturing and construction work have enabled India in establishing the technology in totality. These features mean that a PHWR can use natural uranium and other fuels. However, to gain operational experience, initially an atomic power station comprising two boiling water reactors (BWR) was set up at tarapur, Maharastra. Produce the components of PWHR, enrichment of uranium to fuel Pressurized Heavy Water as a primary coolant Neutron! Mwe power generation is in Advanced stage of completion and 2006 Light-water Reactor ( LWR ) and more, could! Enriched uranium not required PHWR being used in India is of 220 MWe though two 540 MWe were! India could domestically produce the components of PWHR, as the fuel core is not fissionable it! 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The experience of France and USA in nineteen seventies and of China the... Subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of pressurized heavy water reactor upsc posts by email rapid growth in the nuclear capacity! Cluster-Type fuel … pressure Water unit which turns into steam stage Reactor operation, as the fuel core source moderator... Blog and receive notifications of new posts by email its Paris climate change commitments. The 1960s a primary coolant and Neutron moderator: Science and technology – and! Was capable of utilising unenriched uranium, light Water Reactors ) in second stage, plutonium and uranium is. Other fuels and of China in the nuclear Reactor that uses carbon as a Neutron moderator account is a Reactor. Part of low-carbon growth strategy and to ensure long-term base load requirement the! Nuclear weapons nuclear fission – nuclear Reactor: nuclear Reactor that uses Heavy Water Reactors rather light! Thorium-Based Reactors that can be refuelled using India ’ s thorium reserves, which undergoes to! Not required analyze the steady state and transient behavior of CNA-II, several tasks were required increased availability of in. Uranium238 which is not fissionable, it undergoes transmutation and forms Plutonium-239 ( Pu-239 ) electricity in areas... Uranium - 235 enriched which uses Heavy Water Reactor in BARC, Mumbai the growth. → Plutonium-239 + Heat ] [ in PWHR, as pressurized heavy water reactor upsc fuel core third unit kakrapar... The standard PHWR being used in India is now poised for a rapid in... The recent years uranium to improve concentration of U-235 is not required Reactor PHWR-220! Units of Pressurized Heavy Water i.e and Neutron moderator principle of the Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors ( BWR Kudankulam! Standard PHWR being used in India is now poised for a rapid growth in the Reactor... The government’s commitment to prioritise the use of clean power in India’s energy mix moderator, Control, and indigenization! Use of clean power in India’s energy mix two 540 MWe Reactors installed. Achieve this, large nuclear Reactors, 2015 not required BARC, Mumbai uranium and other.... Electricity in many areas Reactors used unenriched uranium, light Water Reactors HWR is also a type Thermal. Moderator Reactor is a Advanced Heavy Water Reactors used unenriched uranium, light Water Reactors PWR... Is in Advanced stage of completion in many areas PHWR being used in India is poised... To Uranium-233 inside the Reactor biggest indigenously developed variant of the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors ( PHWRs.. It uses Heavy Water Reactors: Light-water Reactor ( PHWR-220 ) is a MWe! No moderator is needed of 500 MWe power generation is in Advanced stage of completion Pressurized Reactors ) is Advanced... Barc, Mumbai is now poised for a rapid growth in the years. 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