when did the british came to jamaica

In 1872, the government passed an act to transfer government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston. Its findings led in the early 1940s to better wages and a new constitution. Meanwhile, several PNP leaders organised the leftist-oriented Trade Union Congress (TUC). This move ended the growing influence of the people of colour in elective politics. [43], Following the peace treaties of 1739–1740, virgin land was opened up to settlement, and Jamaica's economy flourished in the period of peace that followed. Two seats were won by independents. The 1907 Kingston earthquake destroyed much of the city. Many of the former slaves settled in peasant or small farm communities in the interior of the island, the "yam belt," where they engaged in subsistence and some cash crop farming. The Great Depression caused sugar prices to slump in 1929 and led to the return of many Jamaicans. In 1866 the new Crown colony government consisted of the Legislative Council and the executive Privy Council containing members of both chambers of the House of Assembly, but the Colonial Office exercised effective power through a presiding British governor. In 1846 Jamaican planters, still reeling from the loss of slave labour, suffered a crushing blow when Britain passed the Sugar Duties Act, eliminating Jamaica's traditionally favoured status as its primary supplier of sugar. All Rights Reserved. Economic stagnation, discontent with unemployment, low wages, high prices, and poor living conditions caused social unrest in the 1930s. The sugar monoculture and slave-worked plantation society spread across Jamaica throughout the eighteenth century. They survived by subsistence farming and periodic raids of plantations. [62] The brutality of the plantocracy during the revolt is thought to have accelerated the process of emancipation, with initial measures beginning in 1833. In 1943, out of a population of 1.2 million, about 700,000 now had the right to vote.[104]. Garfield Higgins, "Plastic smiles and constipated glad-handing cannot smother reality, PNP". The third chose to join those who had previously escaped from the Spanish to live and intermarry with the Arawak people. The 1938 riots spurred the PNP to unionise labour, although it would be several years before the PNP formed major labour unions. Jamaica recently celebrated its 53rd anniversary of independence from Britain on August 6. Merchants and privateers worked together in what is now referred to as "forced trade." The council included a few handpicked prominent Jamaicans for the sake of appearance only. Du Casse then sailed down the southern coast, eventually landing at Carlisle Bay, with the object of marching on to Spanish Town. When sugar declined as a crop, the British government was persuaded to emancipate the slaves with the abolition of slavery in 1834 and full emancipation within four years.[79]. [39] In September 1728, the British sent more troops to Jamaica, leading to an intensification of the conflict. Bustamante had political ambitions of his own, however. 1670 Spain formally cedes Jamaica to England. The Spaniards themselves escaped the island or were expelled shortly afterward. Hart worked as a member of the Executive Committee of the Trade Union Council from 1946 to 1948. "The Jamaica Prosecutions. Most of the sea trade moved to Kingston. During the proceedings, James Geoghegon, a black spectator, disrupted the trial, and in the police's attempts to seize him and remove him from the courthouse, a fight broke out between the police and other spectators. The second governor, Lord Windsor, brought with him in 1662 a proclamation from the king giving Jamaica's non-slave populace the rights of English citizens, including the right to make their own laws. Despite having very little to do with it, Gordon was eventually executed. Agricultural development was the centrepiece of restored British rule in Jamaica. [86], View of Kingston in 1907 showing damage caused by the earthquake, Marcus Mosiah Garvey, a black activist and Trade Unionist, founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League in 1914, one of Jamaica's first political parties in 1929, and a workers association in the early 1930s. On May 11, the Spaniards surrendered. They also attacked white travellers on the roads. Upon landing in Jamaica and other islands, they quickly urged local growers to change their main crops from cotton and tobacco to sugar cane. As a result, Norman Manley became the new chief minister.[109]. However, nationalism was at a rise and dissatisfaction with the new union was great. The abolition of the British slave trade in 1807 did not mean that people of African origin no longer came to the island. PNP socialism during the 1940s was similar to British Labour Party ideas on state control of the factors of production, equality of opportunity, and a welfare state. Low crop prices, droughts, and disease led to serious social unrest, culminating in the Morant Bay rebellions of 1865. Sugar was quickly snapped up by the British, who used it in cakes and to sweeten teas. Manley responded by offering the people a chance to decide whether or not they wanted Jamaica to remain in the Federation. – Howard Pyle, “Jamaica New and Old” in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, January 1890. The JLP ended up with 14 seats, and there were no independents. Other members began withdrawing soon after. Concrete actions, however, were not implemented to deal with Jamaica's massive structural problems. After some misfortunes, this effort succeeded, and much booty and many ships were taken by the English. By the 1820s, Jamaican sugar had become less competitive with that from high-volume producers such as Cuba and production subsequently declined. Governor Eyre took this opportunity to abolish the Assembly, which was becoming increasingly influenced by free black and mixed-race representatives. During the same period, the contribution to GDP of mining increased from less than 1 percent in 1950 to 9.3 percent in 1960 and 12.6 percent in 1970. In the same year we first hear of the English trying to suppress the Maroons. Jamaica's share of seats in the Federal parliament was smaller than its share of the total population of the Federation; many Jamaicans expressed the view that the smaller islands would be a drain on Jamaica's wealth; Jamaica was geographically distant from the eastern Caribbean; and many Jamaicans were upset that Kingston was not chosen as the Federal capital. To take came over the country form Spain in 1592 cause they were bring African slaves to island to work in the field. The voter turnout was 72.9%.[111]. He brought with him a Royal Proclamation declaring that all children born of English subjects in Jamaica should be regarded as free citizens of England. However, the property qualification and a literacy test ensured that only a small percentage of the black Jamaican majority could vote in these elections. Spanish settlements flourished until the 1600s, During the 1650s the Spanish lost Jamaica to … It began as a nationalist movement supported by the mixed-race middle class and the liberal sector of the business community; its leaders were highly educated members of the upper middle class. Thus, from an early stage in modern Jamaica, unionised labour was an integral part of organised political life. The unstated alliance – based on shared color, attitudes, and interest – between the British officials and the Jamaican upper class was reinforced in London, where the West India Committee lobbied for Jamaican interests. Bananas were first exported in 1867, and banana farming grew rapidly thereafter. Garvey also promoted the Back-to-Africa movement, which called for those of African descent to return to the homelands of their ancestors. [71], The requirements were an income of £180 a year, or real property worth £1,800, or both real and personal property worth £3,000. [37] During the eighteenth century, those white men who survived tropical diseases, were, on average, 50 times wealthier than those who resided in the British Isles. Paul Bogle was executed "either the same evening he was tried or the next morning. The following year Jamaica joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In 1868 the first large-scale irrigation project was launched. Approximately five hundred slaves were killed in total: 207 during the revolt and somewhere in the range between 310 and 340 slaves were killed through "various forms of judicial executions" after the rebellion was concluded, at times, for quite minor offences (one recorded execution indicates the crime being the theft of a pig; another, a cow). Spanish Jamaica had been a colony of Spain for over a hundred years. 1692 An earthquake devastates Port Royal. It consisted of twenty members elected by the people. The population of English settlers remained small, but they brought in vast numbers of African slaves to work the sugar estates. [49], Tacky and his men went running through the woods being chased by the Maroons and their legendary marksman, Davy the Maroon. Nuala Zahedieh, a lecturer at the University of Edinburgh, wrote, "Both opponents and advocates of so-called ‘forced trade’ declared the town’s fortune had the dubious distinction of being founded entirely on the servicing of the privateers’ needs and highly lucrative trade in prize commodities. When the British government decided to merge its Caribbean colonies, the West Indies Federation consisting of Jamaica and nine other colonies was formed in 1958. Production rose from 5 million stems (32 percent of exports) in 1897 to an average of 20 million stems a year in the 1920s and 1930s, or over half of domestic exports. As many former plantations went bankrupt, some land was sold to Jamaican peasants under the Crown Lands Settlement whereas other cane fields were consolidated by dominant British producers, most notably by the British firm Tate and Lyle. After the abolition of slavery, Jamaica’s plantation owners looked for another source of labor. [33] The sugar industry was labour-intensive and the English brought hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans to Jamaica. By 1882 sugar output was less than half the level achieved in 1828. The British colonial authorities sent local militia and British army units against them, but the Maroons successfully fought a guerrilla campaign against them in the mountainous interior, and forced the British government to seek peace terms to end the expensive conflict. On 18 September 1938, he inaugurated the People's National Party (PNP). Today, we take a brief look back on what Jamaica was like from the mid-1600s to 1962, when the country gained independence. But, as noted, smallscale agriculture in Jamaica survived the consolidation of land by sugar powers. In 1655 the English occupied the island and began a slow process of creating an agricultural economy based on slave labour in support of England's industrial revolution. Bustamante took office as the unofficial leader of government. As was the case throughout the Commonwealth Caribbean in the mid- to late 1930s, social upheaval in Jamaica paved the way for the emergence of strong trade unions and nascent political parties. They were commanded by Admiral Penn and General Venables, who had been sent by Oliver Cromwell to capture the island of Hispaniola. Jordon and Osborn strongly opposed the measure, but it was pushed through by Eyre despite their opposition.[80][81]. Manley defended Bustamante in court against charges brought by the British for his labour activism in the 1938 riots and looked after the BITU during Bustamante's imprisonment. There were then 4,205 persons in Jamaica. The headmen of the community were escaped slaves named Warren and Forbes. However, Jack's runaway community continued to thrive under his deputies. It was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, and the next governor rescinded the Act. [113] The abolition of the slave trade was followed by the abolition of slavery in 1834 and full emancipation within four years. Cheap sugar cane was then becoming popular in Europe and the new settlers decided to take full advantage of these new developments by utilizing the island of Jamaica. The white population increased, through migration from Britain, to 80,000 in the 1780s. These figures excluded the vast majority of freed black Jamaicans from the right to vote in Assembly elections. The crowd began pelting the militia with rocks and sticks, and the militia opened fire on the group, killing seven black protesters before retreating. The British 5,000 troops and militia outnumbered the Maroons and their runaway slave allies ten to one, but the mountainous and forested topography of Jamaica proved ideal for guerrilla warfare. The PNP secured a wider margin of victory, taking 29 seats to the JLP's 16. Considered by many writers of that time one of the world's deadliest earthquakes, it resulted in the death of over eight hundred Jamaicans and destroyed the homes of over ten thousand more. Manley was appointed Jamaica's first premier on 14 August 1959.[110]. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the number of slaves in Jamaica did not exceed 45,000, but this population rose to about 75,000 in 1730, and passed the 100,000 mark in the 1740s. The slave population increased rapidly during the last quarter of the seventeenth century and, by the end of the century, slaves outnumbered white Europeans by at least five to one. One slave from Esher decided to slip away and sound the alarm. “The fact that it originated out of Gatwick means the interest in flying to Jamaica came largely from British residents,” stated Bartlett, explaining that once the aircraft originates in Gatwick, it would also be bringing many Jamaican expatriates. Such guerrilla warfare and the use of scouts who blew the abeng (the cow horn, which was used as a trumpet) to warn of approaching British soldiers allowed the Maroons to evade, thwart, frustrate, and defeat the forces of an Empire. The independent country On August 6, 1962, Jamaica became independent with full dominion status within the Commonwealth, under a constitution that retained the British monarch as head of state. [73], In 1835, Jordon was elected a member of the Assembly for Kingston, and he led the Kings House Party, or Coloured Party, that opposed the Planters Party. In the late nineteenth century, Crown colony rule was modified; representation and limited self-rule were reintroduced gradually into Jamaica after 1884. In 1673, there were only 57 sugar estates in Jamaica, but by 1739, the number of sugar plantations grew to 430. [61], In 1831, enslaved Baptist preacher Samuel Sharpe led a strike among demanding more freedom and a working wage of "half the going wage rate." More than 300 years of British rule changed the face of the island considerably (having previously been under Spanish rule, which depopulated the indigenous Arawak and Taino communities ) – and 92.1% of Jamaicans are descended from sub-Saharan Africans who were brought over during the Atlantic slave trade. Joseph Hibbert returned from Costa Rica in 1931 and started spreading his own conviction of the Emperor's divinity in Benoah district, Saint Andrew Parish, through his own ministry, called Ethiopian Coptic Faith; he too moved to Kingston the next year, to find Leonard Howell already teaching many of these same doctrines, having returned to Jamaica around the same time. Morgan achieved some success against the Maroons, who withdrew further into the Blue Mountains, where they were able to stay out of the reach of Morgan and his forces. That year, the British sent a new governor, Major-General Robert Hunter, to Jamaica, and under his rule the conflict with the Maroons escalated. In that year, using the JTWTU as a stepping stone, he founded the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union (BITU), which inaugurated Jamaica's workers movement. He was also a visionary nationalist who became the driving force behind the Crown colony's quest for independence. But Jamaica gain independent in 1962. Bustamante emerged from the 1938 strikes and other disturbances as a populist leader and the principal spokesperson for the militant urban working class. In 1940 the PNP adopted a socialist ideology and later it joined the Socialist International, allying formally with the social democratic parties of Western Europe. The British used the contrived breach of treaty as a pretext to deport the entire Trelawny Town Maroons to Nova Scotia. [114] Unable to convert the ex-slaves into a sharecropping tenant class similar to the one established in the post-Civil War South of the United States, planters became increasingly dependent on wage labour and began recruiting workers abroad, primarily from India, China, and Sierra Leone. The execution and trial of Gordon via martial law raised some constitutional issues back in Britain, where concerns emerged about whether British dependencies should be ruled under the government of law, or through military license. In 1919, women gained the right to vote in Jamaica, but only about one-twelfth of the population had the right to vote. After the duke's death in 1688, the planters, who had fled Jamaica to London, succeeded in lobbying James II to order a return to the pre-Albemarle political arrangement and the revolution that brought William III and Mary to the throne in 1689 confirmed the local control of Jamaican planters belonging to the Assembly. The first Carribean islands to be settled by the British were St Kitts (1623/4) in the north-east and Barbados (1627) in the south-east corner of the Caribbean Basin. In 1655 on May 10, a body of English sailors and soldiers landed at Passage Fort, in Kingston harbour, and marched towards Spanish Town. The Spanish also came without women and as of such, often the Taino women were raped by the settlers. However, the Spanish repulsed this poorly-executed attack, known as the Siege of Santo Domingo, and the English troops were soon decimated by disease. History of the Jamaica Labour Movement", "Honorary Graduate Profile: Richard Hart", http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/the-agenda/plastic-smiles-and-constipated-glad-handing-cannot-smother-reality-pnp_196158?profile=1096, "History this week:Constitutional Developments in British Guiana and Jamaica between 1890 and 1945 (Part 3)", http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/Norman-Manley-as-premier_17349996, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colony_of_Jamaica&oldid=996404607, Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas, 1655 establishments in the British Empire, 1962 disestablishments in the British Empire, Articles needing additional references from November 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in Jamaican English, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Low crop prices, droughts, and disease led to serious social unrest, culminating in the Morant Bay rebellions of 1865. [108], In the 1955 Jamaican general election, the PNP won for the first time, securing 18 out of 32 seats. These Maroons united with a group of Madagascars who had survived the shipwreck of a slave ship and formed their own maroon community in St. George's parish. He was convicted of mail fraud in 1923 and had served most of a five-year term in an Atlanta penitentiary when he was deported to Jamaica in 1927. The smooth working of the Crown colony system was dependent on a good understanding and an identity of interests between the governing officials, who were British, and most of the nonofficial, nominated members of the Legislative Council, who were Jamaicans. Both men were the forerunners of Marcus Mosiah Garvey. In 1942, while still incarcerated, he founded a political party to rival the PNP, called the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). The Jamaica Labour Party – helped by its promises to create jobs, its practice of dispensing public funds in pro-JLP parishes, and the PNP's relatively radical platform – won an 18 percent majority of the votes over the PNP, as well as 22 seats in the 32-member House of Representatives. In 1673 one such revolt in St. Ann's Parish of 200 slaves created the separate group of Leeward Maroons. They were given contracts in Jamaica for three years to tend to American-led large scale planting of coconuts, bananas and sugar. As black Jamaicans becoming discontented with their lack of political representation, they turned to the support of two leaders who challenged the racial hierarchy, both insisting that black people were the equals of the white people who dominated the government and the island's wealth. There are mountains and plateaus to the interior and east of the island. [54], In the 18th century, a number of slaves secured their freedom through a variety of means, such as being mistresses or children of plantation whites. Many of the English sailors and soldiers, and the people who came with Sedgwicke, died from the fevers of the country and the hard food and water they consumed. Many of the rebels, confidence shaken, returned to their plantations. [78] The speedy trial saw Gordon hanged on 23 October, just two days after his trial had begun. [14], The last Stuart governor, the Duke of Albemarle, who was more interested in treasure hunting than in planting, turned the planter oligarchy out of office. The government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, and only land on the sea front. Between April and August, and fled to Cuba, and fled Cuba! ; representation and limited self-rule were reintroduced gradually into Jamaica after 1884 Marcus Mosiah.... 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